How To Harness The Seo Potential Of Co-citation And Co-occurrence? (Best solution)

That is co-citation [more precisely, co-occurrence].”

Here’s how to do it.

  1. Don’t focus on anchor text.
  2. Deemphasize keywords.
  3. Build your brand presence and exposure.
  4. Use content marketing for legitimate, high-quality links.

What is keyword co-occurrence?

Co-occurrence is a concept which refers to the common presence, frequency of occurrence, and close proximity of similar keywords present across several websites. Co-occurrence may include keywords that are similar to each other and based on the same topic, but are not exactly the same.

What is a Cocitation link?

Co-citation means that a website is mentioned by two different sources, but not necessarily linked. It’s really as simple as that. For example, if Search Engine Journal is mentioned across many websites, even if it isn’t linked, Google will take note of this and call it co-citation. This is a good thing.

How do you create a co-occurrence matrix?

To create a co-occurrence matrix, you go through a body of text setting a window size around each word. You then keep track of which words appear in that window. Rather than using the words around each center word to update a word vector like Word2vec does, you create a matrix to store co-occurrence counts.

How do you create a co-occurrence network?

Networks are generated by connecting pairs of terms using a set of criteria defining co-occurrence. For example, terms A and B may be said to “co-occur” if they both appear in a particular article. Another article may contain terms B and C. Linking A to B and B to C creates a co-occurrence network of these three terms.

What is bibliometric coupling?

Bibliographic coupling occurs when two works reference a common third work in their bibliographies. It is an indication that a probability exists that the two works treat a related subject matter. Two documents are bibliographically coupled if they both cite one or more documents in common.

What is a co-occurrence matrix used for?

, co-occurrence matrix computes how often pairs of pixels with a specific value and offset occur in the image. could indicate “one down, two right”. co-occurrence matrix, for the given offset.

What are Glcm features?

The GLCM functions characterize the texture of an image by calculating how often pairs of pixel with specific values and in a specified spatial relationship occur in an image, creating a GLCM, and then extracting statistical measures from this matrix.

What is co-occurrence grouping?

Co-occurrence grouping attempts to find associations between entities based on transactions.

What is co-occurrence matrix NLP?

What is a co-occurrence matrix? Generally speaking, a co-occurrence matrix will have specific entities in rows (ER) and columns (EC). The purpose of this matrix is to present the number of times each ER appears in the same context as each EC.

What is co-occurrence gene?

Co-occurrence analysis, based on the hypothesis that co-occurring entities are functionally linked, is a technique that has been used in three main areas of biological research: Co-occurrence of genes in fully sequenced genomes.

Co-Citation & Co-Occurrence: How Important Are They for SEO Today?

Despite the fact that we are all working to grasp Google’s algorithm and become proactive rather than reactive in our marketing tactics, we must be careful not to become a victim of simply another marketing phrase (and in this industry, that can be hard to navigate). Co-citation and co-occurrence are terms that we researched for you to help you understand what they imply, how they vary, and whether or not these are approaches that should be taken seriously when it comes to optimizing the SEO of your website.

What Is Co-Citation?

We are all aware that link building is effective, which is much to Google’s displeasure. Co-citation (and co-occurrence, for that matter, but we’ll get to that in a minute) are two terms that come to mind. Co-citation refers to the occurrence of a website being referenced by two independent sources without necessarily being related to each other. It’s truly as straightforward as that. In the case of Search Engine Journal, if the publication is cited on other websites, even if they are not connected to it, Google will take notice of this and refer to it as co-citation.

This is a positive development.

Suddenly, the website stated, as well as all of the websites that link to that website, are all linked together, which is a positive thing once again.

Through co-citation, it helps to place you on the same level as the other person.”

What Is Co-Occurrence?

Once again, the notion is that you want to rank for more than simply keywords, and instead want to concentrate on ranking for concepts and ideas that are related to your business. According to an SEO Hacker study, in order for the Google bots to crawl a piece of content and be able to detect co-occurrence, they look for “close proximity of similar keywords present across several websites, which may include keywords that are similar to each other and based on the same topic, but are not exactly the same,” among other things.

  • Advertisement Continue reading farther down this page.
  • It appears to be straightforward, doesn’t it?
  • It all boils down to search engine inquiries.
  • Consider the following two scenarios.
  • If this occurs frequently enough, Google will begin to associate the two phrases together, resulting in the assumption that group tours are what people are looking for when searching for Costa Rica family holidays on the internet.
  • You will want to correlate these phrases together in your work whether you are a writer or an SEO specialist as well.

(even despite spelling the bird slightly wrong). Another instance of co-occurrence has happened.

How to Get on Track with Co-OccurrenceCo-Citation

Co-occurrence and co-citation are difficult concepts to grasp at first, therefore it is important to chat with your content authors about how to approach them successfully. You should make certain that they comprehend these notions so that they may add authoritative mentions and relevant key words into their work. Here are a few pointers from this article on Uberflip:

  • Make sure to keep up with your keyword research, but take it a step further. Each term you want to employ should be broken down into modifiers, which should then be attempted to be included into your material. Make use of related terms in your h1 and h2 tags, as well as in your titles and descriptions. A tool such as Ahrefs Keyword Explorer might assist you in being more creative and generating fresh ideas. Once again, consult with your authors. As a result, arm your writers with this knowledge and provide them with training so that they can respond effectively to this way of thinking.

Why Co-OccurrenceCo-Citation Make Sense

In fact, when you stop to think about it, the concepts of co-citation and co-occurrence make perfect sense when it comes to what Google has been attempting to promote all along: authority and true, genuine intermingling between outstanding pieces of information. Advertisement Continue reading farther down this page. If we go back over the history of Google algorithm improvements, we can see that this is something that has been in the works for quite some time:

  • In 2013, Google introduced the Hummingbird update, which is intended to assist guarantee that “pages matching the meaning do better, rather than pages matching only a few words.” Some would say that this was the beginning of this sort of tactic
  • Others would disagree. This machine-learning technology, which was first introduced in 2015, is tasked with the unique task of identifying commonalities across sites that visitors find important. A recent Google upgrade, dubbed the “most critical change in five years,” focused on the ability to recognize the context of words in a search query. BERT: It placed a strong emphasis on natural language and conversational questions.

Why Link Building Still Makes More Sense

While the notion of co-citation and co-occurrence makes sense and appears to have some legs in terms of where Google ultimately wants to go (i.e., not relying on links as much), it would be good not to put all of your eggs in one basket with this strategy. I frequently try to illustrate that, despite the fact that many claim that links aren’t necessary and that content is essential, Google’s search engine results pages (SERPs) do not support these claims. Concentrate on real-world scenarios. In order for a website to be successful and to rank well in search results, links are still essential, and I don’t see that changing anytime soon.

  • What is the TF-IDF and how can it help your SEO
  • Content Analysis and Improved Ranking
  • How to Implement a Link Conversion Strategy
  • And more.

The featured picture was sourced from; the other images were taken from a SEJ article published in March 2013.

What Is a Co-Citation and How Can it Improve Your Rankings?

Traditional link building techniques are no longer sufficient for assisting websites in achieving high search engine rankings. As a result, something known as co-citation is required for search engine optimization (SEO). The term “co-citation” refers to the occurrence of a website being cited by two other websites that do not necessarily provide linked material in addition to the citation. Consider how academic academics frequently mention other articles while they create their own research papers.

First and foremost, it demonstrates that the present author of the research study has invested the necessary effort in locating high-quality, relevant information to support their findings.

Another approach to think about the notion of co-citation is to think about how celebrities frequently mention other celebrities in their social media posts, which is known as name dropping.

For example, if Beyonce mentions an upcoming artist on her Twitter feed, people are more likely to believe that the new musician is someone who should be known since Beyonce is interested in that individual.

As the artists make reference to one another, a resulting buzz spreads across society, or at the very least within the portion of the public that is devoted to one or both of those performers.

How Does Co-Citation Affect SEO?

Increasing the number of times a site is referenced but not linked to in content gives the impression that the site has greater authority. In order to maintain a high position for your website despite Google’s algorithm adjustments, you must incorporate some best practices into your SEO plan. For example, simply having the existence of links in your content is no longer enough to ensure success. A few of the hyperlinks may lead to non-authoritative sources of information. However, if a reliable source mentions your site through co-citation, that apparently insignificant detail might have a significant impact on your SEO rankings.

Google rewards high-quality material, and inserting an unrelated but authoritative co-citation or link will not help you get the results you desire in the search engine results.

Ways to Find Co-Citation Success

If you want to maximize the potential of higher-ranking content, one general aim you can set for yourself is to establish a strong brand for your website. Take, for example, the Beyonce case that was stated before. Many people believe that the music celebrity mentioned the newer musician because she believed the individual had something special that other people would love. This is not the case, however. If other people believe your website is a high-quality location, they will be more likely to mention it.

  • When the same terms appear on different websites at the same time, this is referred to as “co-occurrence.” The term “co-occurrence” is not the same as “co-citation,” but it is something you should be aware of when selecting keywords for your website content.
  • This is due to the fact that Google no longer simply searches for exact-match keywords in content, but also for terms that are related to user intent, as previously.
  • Contribute to the success of your link-building efforts by using co-citations.
  • Briefly said, SEO specialists have progressed beyond traditional link building and are now looking for strategies to have their sites referenced in addition to actual links that people may click on inside the content.
  • Content marketing today is vastly different from what it was even a few short years ago.

Co-citation and co-occurence are two terms that are discussed in further detail in our FREE Link Building Guide. Get your copy of the book now!

Link Building: What Are Co-citation and Co-occurrence?

When Google was first founded in 1998, “link popularity” was the most important criterion in determining a website’s authority in order to provide visitors with better search results. However, when users began abusing the system and employing unethical link building tactics, Google was forced to respond by removing the offending websites from the system. Since then, Google has experimented with anti-spam algorithms and released various improvements, including EMD, PMD, LSI, Penguin, and Panda, to combat spam.

Co-citation and co-occurrence are two terms that are frequently debated in the search engine optimization world these days.

The co-citation and co-occurrence approaches, anticipated by Rand in late 2012, have mostly superseded these techniques and have grown highly popular.

What is Co-citation?

Having two separate links, A and B, on the same website (C), which means that the value of C will be passed over to A and B, is known as co-citation. Furthermore, co-citation dictates that links A and B will create an interrelationship and convey some value to one another through their affiliation, which is referred to as co-citation. This type of association is established between websites A and B that are not directly linked to one another but appear together on web page C.

What is Co-occurrence?

As well as the frequency and proximity of keywords appearing on a website, co-occurrence is utilized to define the relationship between them and their interaction with one another as well. The concept of co-occurrence is intimately tied to Latent Semantic Indexing. In the words of Matt Cutts, “it makes it simpler to annotate information warehouses with papers, and it opens the door to the possibility of improved ranking in the future as a result of the new signals.” Rather of simply linking two websites together, co-occurrence establishes connections between them based on the use of comparable terms and phrases.

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How Will They Affect Link Building in the Future?

In the event that you are still employing old link building strategies that are now out of date, it is possible that your website has already suffered a drop in search engine ranks and may even have been de-indexed. When dealing with today’s Google spam-fighting changes, it is critical to employ modern link-building strategies in order to get the highest potential ranking outcomes. Consequently, the issue arises as to how the use of co-citation and co-occurrence will effect the link-building process.

The principles of co-citation and co-occurrence should encourage the development of strategies for obtaining high-quality backlinks. Following that, I’ll teach you how to include co-citation and co-occurrence into your SEO strategy to improve your search engine ranking.

1. Avoid Using Keyword-Based Anchor Text

A traditional SEO strategy that relied on the notion that increasing the number of links to a website will result in higher rankings was making the anchor text an exact match to the keywords. This practice, on the other hand, is no longer advantageous nowadays. Please refrain from using adjectives like “best,” “affordable,” “leading,” “top,” and so on to differentiate your keywords within your anchor text. Because the olden days are over, you should toss this approach out the window to prevent injuring yourself.

  • A natural link is usually associated with a brand name or is a direct connection to the brand’s website.
  • Then, how would you go about establishing a backlink to it?
  • According to Google, this method creates the most natural links.
  • Before I begin, consider how much time you’ve spent reading Wikipedia articles in the last several months.

It’s possible that you’ve come across papers in which citations were not supplied, and this was noted in a superscript, such as the following: The reference in this section includes a link to a reputable source or website where authorized authors may check the veracity of the information offered in the article.

You will be establishing a connection between the sources and your page in this manner.

3. Write What Users Look For

Always make an effort to write about issues that people who are seeking for information on the Internet are interested in. Because Google works best with conversational searches in the majority of circumstances, long-tail keywords are the most useful. If your title contains a keyword, it will always appear higher on the search engine result page (SERP), but you’ve surely observed that high-ranking sites are highlighted even when their titles do not contain that specific phrase. Do you have any idea why?

Good link profiles indicate that a website has an excellent domain authority, as well as citation value, trust value, and many other aspects.

4. Go For Content Marketing

Because of all of Google’s spam upgrades, content marketing has become an increasingly important strategy for generating the traffic and visibility that your website need. It is only when you have material with natural inbound links that co-citation and co-occurrence may be effective. As a result, provide as much original, interesting information as you possibly can, including interactive infographics and films that pique the interest of your audience.

Always strive for quality over quantity when creating new content for your website. Maintain a consistent publishing schedule for fresh content on your website.

5. Build a Natural Link Profile

This is something I’m included since it’s something that people seldom consider, yet it’s one of the primary reasons that major websites are subjected to sanctions. When you fail to update your website link profile, Google is able to quickly trace your activities. Then, on the day when Google releases a new algorithm update, you’ll see a deflection in your ranking position. Make ensuring that your link profile remains natural by employing branded/diluted anchor texts, deep linking, quality backlinks, co-citation, co-occurrence, and lots of fresh material to avoid being penalized by future algorithm upgrades.


To recap the whole process, co-citation and co-occurrence are critical for assisting you in the development of a link building plan and the realization of a high-quality link profile. Although anchor texts have lost their significance over time, and links have also lost their significance over time, it will always be the most important factor in evaluating websites, at least for the next several years. Increasingly, the importance of brand value, co-citation and co-occurrence, quality links, and good content is being recognized as the top dogs.

Google will very certainly release additional significant upgrades in order to do this.

By implementing these advanced link methods, you will be able to build a natural link profile and boost your exposure in search engine results.

How Google May Reform Queries Based on Query Session Co-Occurrence

When searching for information, especially on topics that you are unfamiliar with, there is a good risk that you will not include the most relevant phrases in your query or that you will include words that may have unclear meanings in your question. Query recommendations and query expansion are two features that search engines use to help searchers better meet their situational and informative demands rapidly. Rewriting queries is another feature that search engines use to help searchers better meet their situational and informational needs.

Alternatively, a search engine may provide synonyms or alternate questions to help you broaden your original inquiry.

Recently, Google issued a patent application that analyzes how it could be possible to make it simpler to locate what you are looking for by delivering more when it comes to the following:

  • Creating query recommendations
  • Keyword suggestions
  • Query expansions
  • Keyword expanded matches
  • Generating query suggestions

The co-occurrence of query sessions is absolutely something that should be investigated further.

Query Session Co-Occurrence

When searching into user query sessions for terms that co-occur inside query sessions, especially when those inquiries are sequential to one another (query session co-occurrence), it is necessary to seek for words that appear in both query sessions. Example: Someone searches for “find airedale terrier pups,” then follows up that search with another searching for “find airedale terrier puppies for sale,” and so on. Because of the co-occurring terms in the two searches, as well as the fact that they are consecutive searches, there is a high degree of confidence that they are connected.

It is possible that people are seeking for anything specific during searches based on the co-occurrence of query sessions.

Recently, I’ve come across multiple blog entries that confuse co-occurrence with co-citation, and they are not the same thing at all.

The observations that lead to such a conclusion might easily include a search engine looking not just at the anchor text in links, but also at the words that could appear in a window around the anchor text near a link, which is simply not how co-occurrence is employed in search engine rankings.

Co-Occurrence Found in Links

The words “Followerwonk” are a link in the following screenshot, while the phrases “Twitter metrics and analytics” appear alongside the link in the following screenshot, for example. According to an inaccurate application and co-occurrence analysis, Google may incorrectly correlate certain terms with the term “Followerwonk.” In most cases, Google will associate some of the words surrounding the link with the destination page that the link is referring to, for example, a “window” of 25 words around the link itself.

In many ways, this patent appears to be similar to a patent I wrote about just a few days ago, which looked at relationships between search entities.

Benefits of Query Session Co-Occurrence

According to the patent, the benefit of employing the query session co-occurrence mechanism provided within the invention can assist with the following:

  • Aspects of taxonomic relationships such as specification and generalization (how queries could be connected to smaller categories and bigger categories) are incorporated into query recommendations through the use of information-theoretical interpretations. Improvements in query results can be achieved by query replacement and query rewriting, respectively. It is possible to identify related terms
  • It is possible to increase the relevancy of advertisements provided to users. It is possible to enhance query classification. It is possible to enhance query completions by taking into account semantic similarities between input phrases and proposed completions. It is possible to tailor query suggestions to better fit user intent in terms of generality or specialization.

Edit Distances in Query Session Co-Occurrence

In most cases, successful improvements are highly dependent on the initial query. This is hardly unexpected given that reformulations typically include spelling fixes, morphological variances, and the reuse of components of the prior query in some way. More exactly, reformulations are similar to the prior inquiry both syntactically (as sequences of characters or phrases) and semantically (as taxonomic relationships that are typically evident). For example, the query becoming a dentist” would have a greater probability of yielding relevant results if the reformulation becoming an oral surgeon” is used instead of the generalized query becoming a doctor” Modelling Query Reformulation on the Syntactic and Semantic Level Query phrases that are potentially comparable are chosen in part based on how closely they are semantically connected to one another.

In a set of query sessions, it’s significantly more probable to see the phrase “become a dentist” followed by a query for “become a dental assistant” than it is to see the phrase “become a doctor” followed by a query for “become a dental assistant.” When users are making searches in a search session, it is probable that they may update their queries in this manner.

We may examine how this is accomplished by making physical changes to the words included inside a query or by making modifications to the terms themselves, respectively.

This isn’t a significant difference in terms of the “edit distance” between one query and the next.

It is possible to construct a framework for terms that are similar in meaning (semantics) and similar in edit distance by combining close co-occurrence values found in consecutive (or nearly consecutive) queries within a query session with measuring edit distances between query terms to find smaller edit distances (or syntactically).

Massimiliano Ciaramita, Amac Herdagdelen, and Daniel Mahler came up with the idea.

20130226950 in the United States Published on the 29th of August, 2013.

An example of a method is selecting query pairs of consecutive queries, each query pair being a first query and a second query that are consecutively submitted as separate queries, with each first and second query including at least one term, and each first and second query being submitted as separate queries.

For each query pair, the method includes the steps of selecting term pairs from the query pair, with each term pair consisting of a first term in the first query and a second term in the second query.

I’ve published a few of blog pieces regarding the use of synonyms in search. Here are only a few examples:

  • Google’s Multi-Stage Query Processing was launched on February 19, 2006. Refining Queries with the Help of a Local Category Synonym
  • 5/25/2007 12/29/2008 –How a Search Engine Might Rewrite Search Queries Using Synonyms
  • How a Search Engine Might Rewrite Search Queries Using Synonyms
  • 1/23/2009 – Google will expand language search capabilities while also shrinking our world
  • The 29th of June, 2009, is the day for Semantic Relations from Query Logs. On December 22, 2009, Google Search Synonyms were discovered in queries. Google Synonyms Updated on January 19, 2010
  • The use of synonyms and related concepts to improve paid search results and query expansion
  • 1/27/2010 Search Engine Synonyms Can Be Used to Rewrite Queries in a Variety of Ways (Updated on February 16, 2011)
  • The 8th of December, 2013 –How Google may substitute query terms based on co-occurrences
  • The Google Hummingbird Patent was issued on September 27, 2013, and it describes how Google may rewrite queries on December 8, 2013. It also describes how Google may reform queries based on co-occurrence in Query Sessions, which was issued on September 9, 2013. Ten years ago today, Google launched its Hummingbird algorithm
  • 12/21/2015 =How Google Might Improve Synonym Substitutions Using Knowledge Base Categories
  • And 10/15/2013 –Google’s Hummingbird Algorithm ten years ago today.

The most recent update was made on July 4, 2019.

Is Co-Citation A Google Ranking Factor? – No Agency Cube

What exactly is co-citation, and is it a role in Google’s search ranking algorithm? During your SEO explorations, you may have come across the word co-citation, which is frequently used in conversations about link building and is frequently used in connection with another term, co-occurrence. A technique known as co-citation has long been utilized by search engines to aid them in detecting how two seemingly unrelated texts may be linked together. This week, my small house building website (a girl can dream) receives an endorsement from a big construction publisher, and your solar power equipment website receives an endorsement from them the following week, what does it say Google about our respective websites?

Is Google, on the other hand, genuinely using co-citation as a ranking element in its search ranking algorithm?

The Claim: Co-Citation As A Ranking Factor

The topic of co-citation has been on our minds for an inordinate amount of time. During a presentation in 2006, Jim Boykin provided an excellent outline of the SEO industry’s grasp of the topic at the time. Advertisement Read on for more information. Below SourceForge provides the following definition: “Bibliographic co-citation is a prominent similarity metric used to demonstrate a subject resemblance between two articles,” he said. In the case when A and B are both mentioned by C, it is possible to say that they are connected to one another even if they do not explicitly reference one another.

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The greater the number of things on which they are listed, the stronger their association.” This kind of information might be beneficial to Google in its quest of the most reliable, authoritative and trustworthy sources to answer searchers’ inquiries, as you can see in the example above.

The Evidence For Co-Citation As A Ranking Factor

We’ll get right into it, but first, if you’re curious what the difference is between co-citation and co-occurrence, check out this little chat between Rand Fishkin and Bill Slawski, which summarizes the distinction in a few tweets: screenshot taken on September 20, 2021. This article is about co-citation, which is the process through which Google’s interpretation of a piece of information is influenced by links rather than keyword searches. Advertisement Read on for more information.

  1. A practice that has been around at least since the early nineteenth century, if not longer, Citation analysis, on the other hand, became significantly more valuable as a result of automation and citation indexing.
  2. Does this sound familiar?
  3. And if there’s even a glimmer of a method to Google’s indexing and information retrieval lunacy, SEO professionals will be scrambling to find out how it affects their clients’ ranks.
  4. One of the factors that might influence the worth of a link is the connections that surround it, according to Jennifer Van Iderstyne’s article from 2010.

Being linked to alongside rivals or reputable sites, on the other hand, might have a favorable impact on your search engine results.” Co-citations are preferred by search engines over anchor text, according to Tayyab Nasir, who said in 2013, “Cocitations are preferred by search engines because co-citations are earned, whereas anchor text is produced by the user.” According to Adam Heitzman, in the year 2020, “If you stop to think about it, both citation and co-occurrence make perfect sense when it comes to what Google has been attempting to value all along — authority and true, genuine intermingling between excellent pieces of information.” Links are still commonly viewed as one of the most – if not the most – strongly weighted ranking elements in Google’s algorithms, despite the fact that the search engine has changed its methodology.

  • However, we all know that there are significant difficulties with link integrity and the worth of links as a ranking component in a world where links can be purchased and traded.
  • Over the years, there has been discussion on the possibility of co-citation and co-occurrence as ranking signals, in place of links and anchor text.
  • Below Citations, on the other hand, are simply a form of link.
  • It assists Google in determining who is who, the “why” behind a connection, and whether or not the link makes sense in the context of the overall site structure.

So co-citation may actually benefit Google in recognizing link spam, allowing links to remain useful as a ranking indication for many more years to come.

The Evidence Against Co-Citation as a Ranking Factor

Although the concept of co-citation as a Google ranking factor has its advantages, there are several drawbacks, not the least of which is the possibility of manipulation. Some may seek to rig the system in any situation where linkages are thought to be valuable. In the case of purchasing connections to increase your industry’s relevance as part of a co-citation plan, you should really consider if the investment is worthwhile in the first place. In an episode of Office Hours: Google on July 11, 2021, John Mueller outlined the many methods through which Google deals with link manipulation.

We take algorithmic action in this case, and we also take manual action in this situation.

In the case of, instance, a site that sells links on a regular basis, we will frequently go in and say, “Okay, we will disregard any links.” Advertisement Continue reading farther down this page.

Co-Citation as a Ranking Factor: Our Verdict

Yes, it is possible to manipulate co-citations. Academics have long recognized that it is necessary to go beyond just counting citations in order to fully comprehend their actual significance. Volume alone does not constitute a useful measure. Creating a large number of low-quality links and directing them to a website would not help you (not anymore and not for long, anyway). Advertisement Read on for more information. Below Links and citations are such a fundamental component of document analysis, and they are so wonderfully valuable, that I feel the benefit exceeds the risk of manipulation – and I believe Google believes the same thing.

  • It is only one minor indication as to what a pair of links heading to the same page informs Google about that page.
  • Attempts to manipulate it as a ranking signal would have a lot less significant influence in search than they would have in scholarly collections.
  • There wasn’t anything I could find.
  • Featured Image: Paulo Bobita/SearchEngineJournal

Co-citation vs Co-occurrence: An Overview

The terms “Co-Citation” and “Co-occurrence” have emerged as fresh issues of discussion within the SEO community. These concepts, which are frequently discussed together, are comparable in a number of ways while being highly unique and different from one another. But there is little doubt that the two ideas will be at the forefront of the next wave of changes in Google’s search engine strategy, with all algorithm improvements placing a strong emphasis on both cocitation and cooccurrence as key factors in search engine ranking results.

The strategy was already being used by Russian search engine Yandex for their most profitable phrases — they were simply compelled to employ it in order to produce the large inflow of spam.

Likewise, Google has been conducting tests, but according to Matt Cutts, the results have been “far, far less than satisfactory.” Now, let’s go to work on describing these two words in further detail.

What is co-occurrence?

As the term implies, the existence of comparable terms on many websites with a high frequency of occurrence and near proximity to one another is referred to as “co-occurrence.” In certain cases, co-occurrence may contain terms that are related to each other and are based on the same issue, but are not identical. In response to the fact that search engines throw out what they perceive to be “relevant replies” to a query that has been submitted by the user, the concept of co-occurrence was developed.

  • As Google’s Amit Singhal put it, “The future of search is to become that Star Trek computer, the ideal faithful servant, that is at my side anytime I need her.” The secret to co-occurrence is that it is not completely reliant on the presence of linkages.
  • In addition to the “relevance” of the keywords in search queries, co-occurrence is defined as the occurrence of two or more search queries that contain phrases that are related to one another.
  • Consider the following scenario.
  • It is only when a large number of individuals make use of these inquiries that the link between the two searches is strengthened and the two queries become connected, even though they are utilized in different circumstances by various search terms.
  • The concept is not entirely original.
  • Matt Cutts correctly described the concept of co-occurrence at the time, though he did not specifically mention it by name.

This was one of the early acknowledgements of the fact that Google search technology, which had previously been entirely reliant on links and link development, was changing, and that it was critical for SEO specialists and analysts to become familiar with the new principles as soon as possible.

Because the source site refers to all three sites – A, B, and C – all four are considered to be connected.

A and B have a stronger relationship since they appear closer to each other and because they are both located near the beginning of the text, they may also be more closely tied to the source of the text.

What is Co-citation?

When two distinct sources reference the same website, but do not always link to it, this is known as co-citation. Rand Fishkin, the creator of Moz, was the first to use the word in an SEO context, and it is quite straightforward to comprehend. Google was founded on the principle of connecting one website to another, with websites that have a large number of backlinks climbing to the top of the search engine results page (SERP). Co-citation is a significant improvement over this practice because it requires a website to be referenced or discussed by two independent sources without the need for a hyperlink to be included in either.

  • Co-citation can occur even when the webpage is only peripheral or indirect to the main point of the argument being made.
  • I recall how, as recently as 10-15 years ago, individuals crammed their (spammy) gateway pages with links to government agencies, colleges, and other relevant resources in order to escape being detected.
  • However, using these sorts of approaches, you can anticipate your site to be up and running for a much longer period of time.
  • Similarly to how superstars gain from continuously referencing other stars in order to build their popularity, you may also benefit by connecting out to other websites.
  • Many commentators refer to co-citation as “link construction without the use of links,” which they believe is an oxymoron.
  • A common reference of the same website should be shared amongst them without the necessity of including a link to it
  • They should address a same or related issue. Now, this does not imply that they should be utilizing the same terms as one another. Similarly to co-occurrence, which has been mentioned previously, the keywords must be comparable rather than a perfect match.

To reiterate, what co-citation accomplishes is to send a signal to the Google algorithm indicating that the sites that have been jointly cited are significant and essential. The three websites in question, the one being referenced and the two that mention it, are now symbiotically interconnected as a result of this. Even so few individuals have considered “mentions” as a ranking element, they are valid. Nofollow links, on the other hand, will offer your site credibility even if no actual link juice is being sent.

  • When it comes to search technology, the relevance of co-citation is that it may be used as a possible alternative for anchor texts.
  • The reality is that more SEOs are conducting in-depth research on co-citation and co-occurrence as a result of Google’s repeated declarations that specific keyword anchors are losing their significance.
  • Many people believe that co-citation is the best thing that has occurred to Google in a long time, and that it is the finest thing that has happened to Google in a long time.
  • What co-citation actually accomplishes is to “reduce” the relevance of SEO tactics to a certain extent.
  • Making excellent content in order to obtain backlinks is not a new concept; yet; as everyone is well aware, the phrase “content is king” is not necessarily true.

As a result of using a no-links co-citation/occurrence technique to ranking higher, younger or lesser-known websites with outstanding content will have a better chance of ranking high even if they do not have a full-time SEO/link builder on staff.

Harnessing Co-Citation to Improve Your Search Rankings

SEM co-citations are not a new notion in the SEO world. When it comes to KW term authority, inbound links and anchor text were the primary driving indications a few years ago. The fact that many webmasters were creating or latching onto entire networks of “bogus” blogs and genre-centric sites for the express purpose of inflating their inbound link counts was discovered by Google, which changed its algorithms to place a greater emphasis on the quality of a given site’s inbound links after becoming aware of the problem.

  1. Taking it a step further, in the area of true co-citation, (as search engines such as Google grow more intelligent), the requirement for an actual link becomes even less necessary.
  2. Quality Is Preferable to Quantity A website with only a few of inbound links (or text citations) from “authoritative” sources may score higher than a website with dozens of inbound links from low-quality or “spammy” sources, according to search engine algorithms.
  3. This is the fundamental principle of co-citation.
  4. For better or worse, your relationship with other high-quality sources (as well as the sources with whom they are affiliated) will automatically make you appear better than you are.
  5. It may be argued that Google’s more sophisticated algorithms have brought order to the unrestrained anarchy of the early years of the Internet.
  6. Among the vast collection of websites that we refer to as the World Wide Web, well-regarded websites are now part of attractive “gated communities,” which provide a measure of protection from the rough-and-tumble neighborhoods that border them.
  7. If you enjoyed mathematics in school, you’ll be pleased to know that thetransitive property is still alive and well in our world.

In this case, “neighbor” refers to everyone who lives in your neighborhood.

According to the rules of the game, your website does not merely gain from direct links to other high-quality websites.

It is possible that Google’s algorithms may see your site as a reliable source of information if a few of the high-quality websites that link to you also link to other high-quality websites.

Members of a chosen yet inclusive community who work together to improve the reputations of their neighbors will be your neighbors.

If you’re prone to think of your website as a research paper of the college-level variety, you’ll want to be certain that the “sources” that it references are reliable.

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This is the equivalent of a “A”-level report in which you cite your own research report as a primary source, as described above.

Co-citation can be a double-edged sword in academic writing.

On the other hand, it’s critical to avoid falling prey to the outmoded assumption that the amount of inbound connections to your website is more significant than the quality of those links.

Although harnessing the notion of co-citation demands a certain level of subtlety and nuance these days, it is unquestionably a beneficial concept to adopt.

A Complete Introduction To Topical SEO & How To Use It

Warning: This piece is highly technical, and the phrasing necessitates a degree of SEO understanding that is beyond the scope of most beginners. Although this is intended to be a comprehensive introduction to the subject, the fact that it is an introduction does not imply that it is suitable for beginners.


Recently, I said in one of my videos that I’d be writing a piece about topical SEO, which I did. This piece is intended to be a beginner’s introduction to the subject for those who have never heard of it before; yet, it is a rather sophisticated topic, and I want to cover it as thoroughly as I can in the space available. But regardless of your degree of expertise, if you’re interested in learning more about how you can employ topical SEO on your website to improve rankings, continue reading since this is information that everyone will benefit from.

What Is Topical SEO

Topical SEO, the word that has risen to prominence in the last 12 months, is more about taking a new approach to optimizing your website than it is about ranking higher in search results. Many individuals now propose arranging and optimizing your site around concepts, rather than keywords, as opposed to optimizing for a particular keyword or set of keywords. The fact that this is an aspect of Topical SEO is without a doubt true; nevertheless, there is much more to it than that. A lot of the instructions and material available on this subject is either ambiguous or completely incorrect.

How Google Works in 2016

In order to fully comprehend topical SEO, we must first discuss how search engines function, and specifically how Google works in 2016. Although part of this is speculation because no one knows exactly how it all works, the fundamentals of how a search engine works boil down to two factors: While we don’t know the specifics of their algorithm, we do know that it serves as the foundation for how a search engine like Google functions. They send crawlers, bots, and spiders (or whatever you want to name them) all across the internet in order to gather various bits of information about the pages on your site.

Once this information has been sent on to the secondary index, which you can think of as a massive database or a massive collection of databases, Google will be able to determine what to index your pages for and precisely where to ‘rank’ those sites in the search engine results pages (SERPS).


The ability for Google to index as effectively as they do today was not always the case, and everytime we see a significant ranking factor being devalued or a new one appearing, it is due to the way in which they are improving their indexing algorithms.

One thing that has been ongoing is a trend towards relevance; topical SEO is really centered around this particular subject.

Why Topical SEO Isn’t Just About Keyword Research

The SEO By The Sea blog, which Bill Slawski writes about on a daily basis (great blog, god awful design), has a lot of Google Patents, and a few of them were very fascinating to me. Several various postings on his blog over the previous 5 years or so, for example, have discussed how Google assesses the relevancy of subjects with each other.

Here’s roughly how this works

The relevance of a group or a cluster of keywords will be attributed to one another, and this “cluster” will serve as the starting point for the definition of a topic. Once a subject has been designated as its own “entity” in the secondary index, additional relevant associations will be formed and cross-referenced to other topics / entities, as well as individual keywords from one topic to individual keywords in another topic. We now have more relevant results from Google than ever before as a consequence of this change.

Google considers each web page to be a node in the network.

In conclusion, I hope you agree with me that topical SEO encompasses much more than simply our on-page content and how we go about conducting our keyword research.

How To Use Topical SEO

After having explained everything there is to say about topical SEO, how in the world can you leverage it to your advantage? Here’s how I’m implementing Topical SEO on my website in 2016.

Keyword Research

What methods do you use to go beyond standard keyword research and do topical investigation? This is exactly what the majority of people think of when they hear the term “Topic SEO.” As with keyword research, everything you do with your SEO efforts should be done after you have completed it. As such, this is the perfect spot to begin your subject research as well. Contrary to popular belief, topical SEO is not a substitute for keyword research; rather, it is something that should be done in conjunction with keyword research to achieve the best results.

This time, I searched for “Dog Food.” –You can utilize both queries and subjects to dive further into Google Trends in order to navigate through the Relevant Searches section and begin compiling a list of related topics and inquiries.

After that, I’ll repeat the process, but this time in the actual SERPs, looking for ‘Searches related to’ at the bottom of each SERP –If there are any terms that appear to be occurring in both locations, or that I’d like to have on my site, I’ll repeat the process a few times, allowing me to quickly gather a good list of topically related keywords to use as the foundation of my site.

The list should be modest enough that you can begin organizing it into similar themes, but if you need to grow it any further, there are two options.

  1. Use the Ahrefs Keyword Explorer and filter by ‘Related’ to find relevant keywords.

As you can see, this returns a large number of keywords that are connected to the topic that I’ve input, and it’s really one of the finest tools that I’ve found for generating topically related keywords in general. To demonstrate precisely what you can do using SEMRush to get more out of your topical research, Ryan Stewart of Webris created a fantastic video, which you can watch to get a sense of what he was talking about. I’ve created a very simple spreadsheet to demonstrate how you may organize keywords into subjects using a keyword database.

It effectively identifies overlapping subjects that provide numerous options for interlinking between your various pieces of content.

This is how you begin to establish your site’s topical authority in a certain area.


Previously, material that was focused on a single topic was preferred; you might get first-page Google rankings by authoring a 500-word piece that was densely packed with your target keyword. That is no longer the case. Due to the increasing importance of relevance and topical SEO, the way we develop content has evolved as a result of the demand for us to change. Monotopic material is no longer performing well in search results; instead, in-depth articles that answer a multitude of queries around a single base topic are dominating the SERPs.

  • What did I get as a prize for this?
  • In order to accomplish topical research while conducting keyword research, you must make certain that you are also conducting keyword research.
  • For example, one of the things that Hummingbird accomplished was to create a new set of tools for Google that allowed it to better assess your material for topical relevance, focusing on replacement terms (also known as synonyms) inside your content more strongly than previously.
  • Google now has the capacity to identify the themes you’re addressing as well as the intent with which your material is aligned, thanks to the use of co-occurrence of phrases to form topics.
  • Before we get into the rest of this essay, and as I’m sure your mind is already boggled at this point, let me ask you a question.

Content that is formatted works in conjunction with relevant content, and I created a video to demonstrate this: It’s important to remember that while this information may seem overwhelming at first, it is really valuable, especially if you’re writing lengthier pieces of content around a single topic rather than just that one-off monotopic article I mentioned before.

Internal Linking

I already discussed how the themes may readily overlap with one another, resulting in excellent internal connection chances in the spreadsheet I shared earlier. We can actually exploit these topical overlaps to build supporting pieces of content that will help to push the primary piece even higher on the search engine results page. For example, the terms “Best Dog Food For Puppies” and “Top Puppy Food Brands” are both used in the same sentence. Given the fact that both keywords are related to the themes “best dog food” and “dog food brands,” this overlap allows us to provide unique supporting material such as “Best Dog Foods For Puppies,” in which we may review each brand separately.

  1. Increasing the overall subject authority and relevancy of your site will also aid to improve its ranking position in search results.
  2. I hope you find it useful.
  3. The co-citation of linked articles or pages can have an impact on the link weight (the amount of overall value that a link goes through).
  4. You may even be more particular by creating content that is entirely focused on the keywords ‘Puppy Food Brands’ and ‘Best Puppy Food,’ which would have ranked back in the day, but is now considered to be a little too monotopic to rank highly on its own nowadays.
  5. This method of developing supporting material to aid in the ranking of your pages is really effective, and as you may have guessed, it is also extremely effective in an asilo structure.

Link Building

According to what I’ve said earlier, topical SEO is quite significant in terms of how it affects your link-building activities as well. Following my shift in focus from keyword density to relevance and topical SEO, I made several adjustments to the way I handled link development. Working on a project that calls for the inclusion of grey or black hat links, my primary criteria is now whether or not the site in question corresponds somehow to the project’s theme. For example, sites like as BuzzFeed, Medium, and other user-submitted content sites provide a very broad range of content, which is really a benefit since you can tailor the content of each individual page on these sites.

In order to gain an overview of a site’s topical trust flow, I’ve begun utilizing Majestic a lot more when prospecting for links.

In addition to reducing the likelihood of your site being penalized when Google’s topical artificial intelligence stuff starts kicking in years down the road, there is certainly enough anecdotal evidence out there from the patents that are owned by Google to suggest that they may cap the total value passed through a link based on the relevance between the two connected nodes, which is a plus (web pagesdomains).

Another excellent illustration of this may be seen inside the blogosphere.

As much as I understand how difficult it can be in some niches to find anything that is extremely specific, what is suggested is that you at the very least try to obtain links from sites that are topically related in some way and that aren’t crammed with content about everything from weight loss to cooking techniques.

Even with link building, you may go the additional mile by include as much material as possible that is thematically related to the link you’re establishing in order to make whatever links you have as effective as possible.

Put your efforts instead into delivering as much value as possible to your visitors through your links, even if it means paying $5 for one link placement.

The concept of building topical authority by concentrating on the relevance between pages and domains is not a new one (it is referred to as co-citation), but it is one that should be examined more frequently than it is now – especially for those looking to achieve long-term, sustainable rankings.

If there is enough interest, I may perhaps do a case study on this topic in the future.

Thanks For Reading

Topical SEO is a vast subject that encompasses anything from how to do keyword research to how to plan and write content, among other things. I could spend a significant amount of time describing this in further detail, but the purpose of this piece is to serve as an introduction for people who have not previously used or deployed it. Please let me know if you have any questions, thoughts, or examples of topical SEO that you would want to share in the comments section below. I hope you liked reading this post.

Thank you to everyone who has responded so far; it’s hard to believe that this blog has just been up and running since late October and that we have already reached such a significant milestone.

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